When making hydrogen in an electrolyser, at the same time also oxygen is produced. To avoid an explosive mixture, a sub-microporous separator is placed in between the electrodes. However, this separator leads to large energy losses and allows dissolved gas to pass (see also https://jwhaverkort.weblog.tudelft.nl/?p=140).
Electrolyte flow can be used to separate all hydrogen and oxygen and make for a membraneless electrolyser.
The question is whether flow can ensure separation more energy-efficiently than a physical separator. Using a combination of modelling and experiments we found the answer to be: yes!
Placing the electrodes approximately half a millimetre apart the ohmic losses can be made much smaller than with a separator, while the pumping power adds only a small additional loss.
Rajaei, H., Rajora, A., & Haverkort, J. W. (2021). Design of membraneless gas-evolving flow-through porous electrodes. Journal of Power Sources, 491, 229364.
Since water is the reactant in water electrolysis, you may be excused for thinking there will be no diffusion limitations. However, at the anode of an alkaline water electrolyzer the reactant is hydroxide (OH-), produced at the cathode. Although usually present at very high concentrations c0 of 6 or 7 M, these ions may deplete at the anode, leading to a limiting current density given by:
With a typical separator thickness L of 0.5 mm and effective diffusivity D– of 10-9 m2/s this gives about 0.5 A/cm2, in the operating range of modern electrolyzers.
In the following graph, the measured voltage over the separator can be seen to diverge when a current larger than i0 is applied. The dashed lines show the behavior expected from a simple model.
For more information on the these measurements, the model, and their relevance for hydrogen production see:
Haverkort, J. W., & Rajaei, H. (2020). Electro-osmotic flow and the limiting current in alkaline water electrolysis. Journal of Power Sources Advances, 6, 100034.0034
Haverkort, J. W. (2020). Modeling and Experiments of Binary Electrolytes in the Presence of Diffusion, Migration, and Electro-Osmotic Flow. Physical Review Applied, 14(4), 044047
By attaching drugs to magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic fields can concentrate them at the location in the body where they are needed. Pre-clinical trials have shown some potential for treatment of superficial cancer tumors. More applications could be envisioned when targets deeper in the body can be reached.
Our 2009 publication was perhaps the first three-dimensional simulation showing that it is possible to capture particles from the bloodstream of large arteries like the coronary and carotid artery. This opens up the possibility of applying the technique to combat also cardiovascular diseases.
Because of an old theorem, the drugs can only be held in a stable position deep inside the body using a dynamic magnetic field configuration or in a quasi-stable position using carefully tailored magnetic fields. Despite this fundamental complication, progress remains to be made today, particularly from the perspective of computational modeling.
Computational Simulations of Magnetic Particle Capture in Arterial Flows
J. W. Haverkort, S. Kenjeres, and C. R. Kleijn